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Spinal compression fracture: symptoms, treatment and rehabilitation, the consequences

For compression fracture of the thoracic spine is characterized by pain in the sternum. Often its occurrence contributes to osteoporosis, trauma, benign and malignant neoplasms. Sometimes vertebrae break down when the person coughs. Along with the trauma of bones, fracture occurs when damage of soft tissues, roots, ligaments. 12 compression fracture of a vertebra is usually hidden trauma. Often, on her, the patient does not know until irreversible consequences.

Kompressionnyj perelom pozvonochnika

The clinical picture

In compression fracture of the thoracic vertebra and nearby tissues continue to be injured from the slightest impact (cough, sudden movements, the breathing process). If treatment is not available, the patient starts, deviations neurological in nature. Because damaged nerve roots may damage the spinal cord.

Trauma 12 thoracic vertebrae, the patient feels pain, disturbed function of internal organs. Touching the affected area, a person experiences severe pain accompanied by spasm of muscles. If the cause of the injury was, the higher compression fracture of the vertebrae occurs hematoma. Often, in addition to the bruise, be the consequence of injuries to the chest and internal organs of the patient.

True symptoms of injury of the vertebrae:

  • Intestinal obstruction;
  • Acute pain in the affected area;
  • A malfunction of the axial muscles;
  • Limitation of motion of the patient;
  • Breathing problems.

Untimely and improper treatment leads to hypoventilation and respiratory inflammation of the lungs.

The stages of treatment

Doctor divides a compression fracture of the thoracic spine structural damage (caused by tumors, proliferation, metastasis, osteoporosis) and fractures obtained in the case of injury. How to treat a compression fracture?

  • Fixation of the injured area of the corset.
  • Anesthesia. Fractures caused by trauma, disease treated by procaine and hydrocortisone. For other causes of fracture prescribed analgesics and muscle relaxants. If the cause of the metastases and the patient has last stage cancer the doctor prescribes medications based on drugs.
  • Examination of the patient. It is carried out using: x-rays; CT; MRI; bone scan with radionuclides; cardiogram; densitometric study. If the cause of osteoporosis, then the patient is prescribed a number of additional studies.

Conservative methods of treatment

Compression fracture of the thoracic spine treated with conservative treatment methods and surgery.

Krovat dlya sozdaniya myshechnogo korseta

The attending physician prescribes the patient on bed rest. The patient is recommended to lie on a specially equipped bed that is tilted down. Duration of therapy: up to six months. The patient wears within 60 days of the corset, locking chest. If the patient passes in bed with slanting bed, the period of wearing a corset was increased to 3-4 months.

Treatment with medication relieves pain. Additionally, the doctor will prescribe medications with calcium, vitamin complexes, hormonal. The therapy of the cartilage protectors, and if necessary bifosfonatami.

Doctor puts patient on the bed with a shield, putting it under the damaged area with bags of flax seed. The size of the bags increases. This technique relieves the injured vertebrae. In some cases, the method of reclinate allows you to associate fragments of the vertebrae.

Reclinate removes the sphenoid bone deformity of the thoracic. To eliminate deformation of the affected area is numb, the victim is placed on a table or a hammock and carry out a hyperextension of the vertebral column.

The result fragments are on the right place, and the injured thoracic spine adopts the correct shape. Method traumatic and rarely applied in practice. Its complication is paresis of the intestine.


The first 14 weeks the patient should not lift heavy objects, expose the body the slightest physical activity. This will lead to deformed bones of the spine. You can't tilt your body, turn it around. It is especially important to take care of themselves for the elderly, because the period of recovery from them is slower than in younger patients. On average, bones for 90 days. Every month the doctor makes an x-ray to control the fusion.

Surgical treatments

It is produced when the height of the vertebra is reduced more than half; if the patient has an acute attack of pain due to the pinched nerves of the spinal cord; if the compression of the nerve endings (spinal cord) threatened by the activities of other bodies or leads to paralysis. Don't operate on patients in the last stages of oncological diseases; if the body of the patient, multiple metastases; if a person is constantly fatigued.

To cancer treatment doctors use instead of operation:

  • Radiation therapy;
  • Pain medicine;
  • Chemotherapy.

The main methods of surgical intervention will kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty, the placement of the implant. Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty apply if the vertebra is not destroyed. These two methods can be used in a single operation.



For the treatment of patients with compression fracture, the surgeon performs kyphoplasty. In the inner cavity of the fractured vertebra injected elastic hollow container. Due to the capacity filled with solution. Pressure fluid-filled container, the bone fragments are in place.


After the receptacle is removed from the vertebra, is introduced into the syringe with the "cement" (polymethylmethacrylate). The composition introduced into the cavity of the vertebra, hardens and fixes the broken vertebra. So, what to treat the hemangioma.


This method involves the replacement of broken bones with artificial implants. This technique is used when a large destruction of the vertebral body.

The rehabilitation period

protruziya diskov

Complications of compression fractures of the spine may be a disc protrusion, disc herniation, compression of the nerve endings. To avoid complications it is necessary to conduct physical therapy. Classes are assigned a week from the date of receipt of the victim to the hospital.

Stages of therapy:

  • Breathing exercises. Done within 10 days. It strengthens the muscles of the vertebral divisions, not allowing them to atrophy.
  • Month the patient from a prone position and bends the arms and legs, slightly turn the body.
  • The next 3 months, the patient performs gentle exercise. It is best to produce them in rehab. The complex forms a good posture, strengthens muscles, relieves pain. Is walking on all fours and other exercises.
  • The patient showing massage and physiotherapy.
  • The next six months, the victim performs a set of exercises with the weights. It builds up the muscles that will relieve the load on the spine.