Spinal cord injury: cervical, thoracic, symptoms, treatment, consequences
If the damage is the vertebral column occurs spinal cord injury. This injury is extremely dangerous, the prognosis of treatment – unfavorable. Injuries of this kind is accompanied by internal bleeding, impairment or termination of the conduction of the nerves of the spine, necrosis of tissues. Any serious pathology in the spinal tissues is accompanied by spinal shock. The diagnosis in this case install is not possible. As soon as the condition improves, and the function of the spine is restored, symptoms of injury, and then it becomes possible to make an accurate diagnosis.
The content of the article
Symptoms of bruises
Injuries to different parts of the spine are characterized by their signs.
- When injury of the spine in the neck area – there is a contusion at the point of impact is formed swelling, can partially paralyze the hands, the cervical lose sensitivity, the neck becomes immobile.
Radiologic diagnosis in this case show violation of nerve conduction and the presence of vascular hemorrhage. Spinal cord injury in this location can prove to be a great extent, the crushing of the soft tissues, and this organic lesion, i.e., irreversible, symptoms – impaired vision, hearing, ability to move, possible amnesia, can disrupt the coordination of movements.
- Spinal cord injury in the thoracic diagnosis lends itself with difficulty, since the brightness of the signs depends on the severity of the injury, sometimes the symptoms of injury are mistaken for other diseases.
If the injury is minor, at the point of impact have a little swelling, can occur numbness caused by the hemarthrosis. If the injury is serious, the patient has cardiac pain, suffering disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, problems with urination. A severe blow can cause breathing difficulties. Diagnose such an injury using a differential method – that is, eliminating irrelevant under the disease, the symptoms and coming elimination to the only correct diagnosis.
- Trauma in the lower back injury will affect the functioning of almost all internal systems of the body.
If the degree of damage to easy – broken the integrity of the muscle may be numbness mild, concentrated in the region of impact. In the case of severe injury impaired mobility of the vertebrae – the patient is unable to stand, to remain calm in a sitting position, he found it difficult not to move for a long time. With the course of the disease is getting worse blood circulation of the feet, the patient complains of ongoing weakness, gradual atrophy of muscles, there is swelling of the ankle joint, swollen ankle.
What are the risks of injury
Bruises all departments violate the conductivity of nerve impulses, which affects the functioning of all body systems. At untimely identification and without skilled treatment will develop complications. The severity affects the success of treatment, recovery and quality of life after injury. Injuries are classified as:
- The lungs, in which there is no damage to vertebrae and does not violate the structure of muscles, they just are treated, especially if detected early, the patient is treated with drugs that help restore blood flow prescribed reparative therapy;
- Average – leading to hematomas and makes blood flow difficult, with damage to the nerve endings, causing numbness and paralysis of legs and arms, with only moderate injuries injured spinal tissue, the crack can cause an infection that threatens sepsis urinogenous, may cause abnormalities of the urinary tract, lungs pneumonia;
- Heavy when fully impaired nerve conduction, which leads to edema of the medulla oblongata develops thromboembolism, venous thrombosis.
Medical care for injuries of the spinal cord has only a restorative effect if the nerve roots have been torn completely, to return the function in full is no longer possible. Most often, the damage from the injury is irreversible, is manifested in necrotic processes in tissues, the occurrence of intracranial pressure, persistent increase in blood can lead to strokes, heart attacks.
- Read also: the Symptoms and effects of spinal cord injuries.
The outcome of the injury and its consequences are not in the least affect measures taken in time to provide first aid and correctly composed and conducted treatment. Initial support is the following:
- The injured lay on a hard flat surface;
- Tothe area of impact should apply ice, to prevent severe swelling;
- Painkillers before arrival of physicians can be given.
Then the job of experts of the ambulance. The doctor will intramuscularly administered promedol 2 ml, later with the help of a catheter the urine. If it is an extensive injury of the upper spine, it is necessary to control the breathing of the patient. If there is a violation of cardiac function, normalize blood pressure. After the victim was given first aid at the scene, taking him to the hospital.
In the hospital conducted a comprehensive examination, including doing an MRI and a CT scan. If the patient has a serious condition that is prescribe a drug that will stop the tissue necrosis.
If the injury is open, most often, surgical intervention – surgery to eliminate the scarring that was the result of internal bleeding. Surgery is indicated only in complicated cases, since the risk of such operations is great.
If for an extended time function is not restored, there may be permanent disability. In this case, it is prescribed only supportive therapy. Throughout the treatment in hospital is necessary to ensure that the patient has not formed bedsores. The risk of occurrence of bedsores in spinal patients is higher than other patients, since they disrupt the normal blood supply.
Not so long ago in surgical practice has been applied the treatment effect on the nerve endings of electric shock. This technique helps in the treatment of patients running even with old injuries.
Along with traditional treatment methods may not be superfluous, and traditional medicines. Treatment is based on the effects of compresses of herbs and alcoholic liquors. Compresses should only be in remission, after rehabilitation doctors. Packs, recipes, set forth below, good relieve swelling and promote better circulation of blood:
- 1 liter of vodka should take 30 g of the roots of burdock and dried flowers violet, 20 g of couch grass and Veronica drug, to insist 5 days, obtained by means of compresses;
- 0,5 liter of vodka to take 20 grams of flowers mother and stepmother and oregano, leave for 3 days, apply lotions and wrapping the affected part.
- Treatment folk methods do not replace traditional and is used in conjunction with therapy prescribed by the doctor.
The recovery period
From what extent he was injured, and from, how well was the chosen course of treatment, whether the victim to walk, whether to perform normal everyday functions. The prognosis depends on what was the General condition of the patient after the spinal shock.
Usually, whether the patient stand on his feet the doctors clear in the first two days after injury. If during this period, motor function started to recover, then we are likely talking about irreversible damage to the spinal cord. A course of rehabilitation therapy and medicines select for each patient individually depending on what the results of treatment.
During the rehabilitation period can be shown to gruzopodemnye wear a corset, which helps to keep the spine in an anatomically correct position on the background of a weakened muscle tone.
As a rule, recommended four basic procedures.
- Hirudotherapy is on the spine implanted medical leeches, a method known since ancient times. In Chinese clinics, this treatment is recognized as official medicine, as well as acupuncture. Leeches prisasyvaet to human skin, drinks from the hematoma the blood and promote resorption of stagnation of blood. The leech saliva contains a special enzyme having the property to improve the quality of the patient thrombosis. In addition, at the time of the bite with the saliva of the leech to human skin a significant amount of substances with sedative and analgesic properties.
- Magnet therapy – magnetic field acting on the spine may, to a certain extent, improve the disturbed conduction of nerve impulses and normalize the blood flow.
- Special therapeutic exercise for spinal patients – it is believed that with the help of certain exercises for an injured spine to create such conditions in which he, naturally, partly restores its function. Persistent and patient physical therapy sessions for a long period of time under the supervision of a specialist is able to restore motor function in full, or return them to the extent that the patient's quality of life after injury was slightly better. Selecting the patient individual complex of exercises, the doctor will take into account the nature of the injury. In the developed property does not include strength exercises. Considered an effective yoga classes, gentle exercise – no special loadsthe vertebrae, the Pilates method of fitness.
- Acupuncture is also effective in the rehabilitation of spinal patients, but only if no broken shells roots of spinal nerves. Besides affecting the vertebrae and the nerves of the spine, acupuncture has a beneficial effect on General physical condition, health and mood of the patient.
Unfortunately, to recover on its own – it is impossible. With all types of spinal injuries required medical assistance, and rehabilitation after them – not just a show, it's essential. Recovery from injury takes a long time, not in every case, the results are good treatment and there is a complete recovery. The injury will make itself felt even after five to ten years.