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Injury of the spine: symptoms, home treatment, complications

The spine plays a critical role in the structure of the skeleton, no wonder its Latin name sounds like a Columna vertebralis – "support post". But he has a pretty weak protection, because it surrounds a pretty thin layer of soft tissue. Bruise of the back (which usually means a bruise of the spine) is a serious damage that require immediate and competent assistance.

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This injury can, if incorrect or delayed treatment, is able to serious complications. The article below provides information on the classification, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of injuries of the spine.


Bruises (or contusions) of the spine vary in level of severity of the injury and location of injury. The level of severity:

  • Light concussion. Accompanied by the tearing of soft tissues, the occurrence of bruising, haematoma and partial limitation of movements passing along with pain. Recovery time is one to one and a half months
  • The average concussion. Inertia causes the hurt of segments and a partial loss of sensitivity of extremities. Possible damage or displacement of the vertebrae and discs. The recovery period is three to four months.
  • Heavy contusion. It is characterized by symptoms such as sharp, chilling the body pain, impaired functioning of the spinal cord and other internal organs, complete with limited movement. The recovery period is longer than six months, however, full rehabilitation is possible.


  • Injury of the cervical spine. Entails spastic syndrome, paralysis or paresis of the limbs, shortness of breath, pain in the neck and head.
  • Injury of the thoracic. Causes loss of limbs, sensitivity, coordination, pain covering the left side of the trunk and radiating to the left arm or girdle pain, soreness of breath), reducing the lower abdominal reflex.
  • Injury Sacro-lumbar spine. Its symptoms include paralysis or paresis of the lower limbs, sexual disorders, disruptions in the functioning of the pelvic organs, lameness, degradation of muscle and tendon reflexes.


Injury back you can get both in production and in the domestic environment, if you fall on the winter ice or getting into a traffic accident . The main reason for these injuries is usually direct or indirect mechanical effect on the back and spine.

Injury of the spine often cause:

  • Blow on the back with a heavy blunt object
  • Unsuccessful landing on your feet when jumping (especially dangerous with the possibility of compression fractures of the spine)
  • Strike back "flat" on the water (One of the most common causes of injury of the spine. It is called "trauma diver")
  • "Whiplash" trauma of the spine with a sharp flexion-extension of the trunk. Common when hit in an accident.

The factors affecting the seriousness of the injury:

  • The age of the victim;
  • The weight of his body;
  • Strength, intensity and duration mechanical impact on the spine;
  • The presence of the victim anatomical pathologies or chronic diseases of the spine.


Remember, the wrong treatment injury of the spine can result in serious problems in the body. Before starting to treat a bruised back, you need to determine the type of injury and put the correct diagnosis. The doctor will help the following types of diagnostics:

  • A survey of the patient. It should be obtained information about the conditions of injury and the specific symptoms.
  • Examination of the patient. Search externally visible deformities of the back and determining the approximate area of damage.
  • Test nerve reactions. Produced manually or using special medical instruments and determines that there are problems with reflexes or tactile sensations.
  • Palpation of the back. This procedure is designed to identify tense areas of the muscles, pain points and hidden spinal deformity.
  • Analysis of blood and urine. The results will show the General condition of the body and indicate inflammatory processes.
  • The x-rays. It is necessary for the most accurate fault location and their nature.
  • CT and MRI will help to get the most detailed picture of the site of injury and to evaluate the degree of deformation of the spinal cord, vertebrae and intervertebral discs.
  • Lumbar puncture. Its purpose is to confirm or deny the existence of hemorrhage into the spinal cord



What to do when injury of the spine? The main thing is as soon as possible to start proper treatment of this injury.First aid to the injured should represent the following set of activities:

  • In the first place - immediately ensure that the affected full mobilnosti
  • If neck injury is necessary to fix her a makeshift splint or orthopedic collar.
  • If breathing is absent or impeded to carry out procedures for mechanical ventilation, without disturbing the stationary position of the injured
  • Applying cold to the site of inflammation
  • When transportation is required to maintain absolute immobility of the damaged portion of the spine. The injured should be put on your stomach(if you use the soft stretcher) or back (when using a solid shield)

The victim, no matter what the nature is of his back injury, prescribed painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs that do not contain steroids. Set of other drugs and combination therapy is prescribed after the doctor will determine the symptoms and nature of damage.

In mild injury, when the structure of the spinal cord and internal organs are not damaged, radical treatment is not granted, limited to bed routine and a temporary ban of physical activity. You can RUB the injured spot such ointments like troxevasin and lioton. If the condition of the injured is not improving within a week, you should repeat the survey with the aim of finding previously unrecognized complications.

In severe injuries is a complex medical treatment in a hospital, which uses the combined intake of individual scheme of drugs such as anticoagulants, angioprotectors and drugs. In certain cases, the doctor prescribes the wearing of a tight corset or orthopedic collar (if damaged cervical). With such serious injuries, like fracture or displacement of the vertebrae and discs may require surgical intervention.

The patient received a severe injury of the spine, needs a long bed rest, which, in turn, can lead to pressure sores. To eliminate used drugs : Chlorhexidine, nasal spray, Solcoseryl

The greatest danger that could represent an injury of the spine is a variety of damage to one of the most important organs of our body - the spinal cord Their symptoms: disorders of the nervous system, infringement of functions of pelvic organs, cuts limbs, partial or complete paralysis.


After 10-12 days after the injury happened back starts (if not already developed complications) the period of rehabilitation that includes the following activities:

  • Physiotherapy. Individually selected by the treating doctor a set of exercises should help in the recovery of motor functions of the spine.
  • Of medical massage. At the moment it is used as the classic variety (manual exposure), and hardware (exposure to vibration, water, air currents).
  • Myostimulation body. This procedure, conducted with the help of modern equipment will help in complete recovery of activity of certain groups of muscles after paralysis or paresis.


The majority of injuries associated with injury of the spine, are due to different accidents, therefore their prevention is in compliance with the fundamentals of domestic and industrial security, good-faith adherence to the rules of the road. In order to avoid injury during sport, you must correctly calculate the physical activity. This will help the experienced coach, who oversees the process of your workouts.