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Spinal injuries: types, symptoms, first aid treatment

Spinal injuries are the most dangerous to human life damage. The fact that through the whole spine is the spinal canal. Spinal injuries often lead to injuries of the spinal cord and loss of motor function.

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What is dangerous?

The most important part is the vertebral body that bears the brunt. Depending on the Department, the size of the vertebrae change from cervical to most small to the most massive and strong in the lumbar and sacral. In the cervical vertebrae of the neck are important arteries and veins responsible for blood flow to the brain.

Damage in the cervical spine are the most life – threatening displacement of one vertebra and contraction of the carotid artery can lead to death.

At the same time, the cervical vertebrae are the most flexible, because the damage to the spine and spinal cord in the cervical region are the most easy to treat.

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The thorax follows after the neck and is a thicker twelve vertebrae. Spinous processes are in the skin and can be polerowany, the bone of the upper vertebral bone is superimposed on the lower, not allowing the spinal column to fall back. This place is out side the nerves of the spinal cord that Innervate the upper half of the internal organs and upper limbs and the muscles of the torso.

Trauma of spine and spinal cord in the thoracic spine leads to loss of mobility of the hands and feet.

The following is five lumbar vertebrae and is a massive Department performs the retaining function. Spinous processes of more massive edges for them not mounted, but can be observed anomaly, additional edges, representing the developed lumbar transverse processes.

Damage to the spine and spinal cord in the lower back with a greater proportion leads to loss of motor function of the lower extremities.

The sacrum is not quite correct to consider as separate vertebrae, normally it is a massive structure of five broshennyh between the vertebrae, representing strong support for the entire torso. However, when abnormalities of osteogenesis can be observed as a fusion with the lumbar, sacralis and lumbalis, nonunion of the first sacral and the transition to the lumbar.

chto takoe krestec

The coccyx is a vestigial tail, consisting of 3-5 small vertebrae. Coccygeal vertebrae attached to his rectum and pelvic muscles. Sometimes wrapped coccyx may interfere with childbirth, since it will block the opening of the cervix and interfere with the normal exit of the fetus.

Injuries of the spine in the coccyx does not bear such a serious nature, such as injury lumbar spine, but causes a lot of trouble in terms of pain.


Injuries in the spine leads many reasons, which constitute danger to human life. First of all – traffic accidents, leading to injuries of the spine. Spine injury in an accident it is often extremely difficult due to the inept actions of passers-by people and lifeguards. A person with a fracture do not pull or drag is extremely critical for the spinal cord.

 Nervous tissue is not elastic, and if the person is wrong to withdraw from the machine can cause tears in the spinal cord that can lead to immobility of the person for the rest of my life.

Another type of damage are whiplash injuries caused by a crowding of the head in road accidents – injured cervical spine, fractures occur spinous process, tear of the joints. The degree will depend on the strength of the neckmuscles, because they are in an emergency situation spasticeski contract and keep the neck from injury.

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The second most frequent are fall from height and during normal ice.

In addition to injuries to the head and spine in this case appear related injury, internal bleeding, and compression injury of organs. Also to injury of the spine may result in an incorrect lifestyle, low physical activity, lack of charging and a sedentary lifestyle are destroying your spinal discs, leading to hernia formation and development of degenerative disc disease of the spinal cord and spine.

Types of injuries

Have a spinal injury classification is not until the end of a certain structure – trauma faced with cases where a combination of a few injuries, sometimes follows one from the other. Divided injury damage directly to the spinal column and spinal cord.


The most simple is the following classification of back injury:

  • Injury;
  • Distortion;
  • Fracture of the spinous process of the spine;
  • The transverse process fracture and broken joint edges;
  • A broken arc;
  • Fracture of the body;
  • Dislocation, subluxation of the vertebrae;
  • The displacement occurred because of an injury.

Bruises and torn ligaments

Injuries among the entire list represent the most light injury. Make you mainly the muscles and joints. The most painful injury of the coccyx, and cause discomfort when sitting on hard surfaces. However, with sufficient force of impact to the coccyx can get his fracture and the complexity of treatment increases significantly.

Under the distortion refers to the strain or rupture of the joint ligaments and bags without subsequent displacement of the vertebra. Locomotor activity from the damaged ligament will be limited, as the treatment applies heat therapy and vitamins, which accelerate the coalescence of the ligaments between them. Distortion dangerous his recidivist nature, because the joint is weakened. This leads to a repetition of a strain or dislocation in the future.

Vertebral fractures

Spinous process breaks down at high load whiplash, especially when retrograde tension, which leads to its fracture. Such a dangerous violation of the discomfort that manifests in the movement, possible development of pain syndrome, which in the future will lead to epilepsy.

The arc of the spine forms a large hole and contains a lot of functional elements – joints and appendages. The fracture of the arc leads to immobility – a person has to spend a month lying down until the fused portion of the arc between them. Improper fusion defects and corn, which in the future reduce the level of life of the patient.

Fracture of the vertebral body leads to complete loss of motor function, the spine sags, compresses the spinal disc. Especially dangerous is the injury to the lumbar spine because have a long time to mend the vertebrae. Even done properly, therapy does not guarantee a complete and painless cure.

The dislocations and displacements

Sprains lead to damage in the spinal cord and affect the integrity of the pole. To return the vertebrae into place often have to resort to surgical procedures and the installation of pins. Sprains are accompanied by distortion and spondylolisthesis (displacement of vertebra) – long disorder that leads to severe consequences in the future. Destroyed ligaments, under the pressure of the trunk vertebrae slowly moves to the side. Forward offset is called anterograde and backward retrograde. Both of them are dangerous because they cause pinching of the spinal cord, arteries and nerve branches.

Spinal cord

Spinal cord injury klassificeret on the severity of the violations that occurred and its reversibility. Orthopaedic highlights:

  • Functional spinal cord injury, with possible remission;
  • Permanent functional damage to the spinal cord;
  • Compressive spinal cord injury.

The functions of the spinal cord include primarily motor, sensory and reflex. At the level of the spinal cordare also nervous ganglia of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, responsible for the operation of internal organs. Reversible is the damage that can be eliminated. It depends on the extensiveness of the injury and the amount of damaged tissue and nuclei, and age.

The lack of regeneration of nerve tissue is a myth – from the rest of the nervous tissue regenerates very slowly, however, problems are reversible.

osobennosti travm spinnogo mozga


Cause reversible injury is a concussion of the spinal cord. Because of the bumps on the spine there is a rapid displacement of the spinal cord "hits" on a nearby wall and some fabrics break their conductivity. A concussion is the most easy option for injury.

At a young age regeneration is much faster, because in the senior years the back need to be protected especially carefully.


To irreversible injuries include bruises and contusions, violations of tissue, which penetrate deeper. Sometimes disc injuries can completely "cut" the brain that lead to a complete loss of function of the damaged segment or below. In such cases it is hard to restore spinal cord function, treatment can take decades and did not bring result.


Spine manifested a sharp unbearable pain, loss of consciousness, extensive paralysis. Depending on the particular vertebra and the division, the symptoms of a spinal injury will vary.

The most common symptoms are:

  • Pain;
  • Numbness;
  • Loss of sensitivity;
  • Pain during movement;
  • Buckling;
  • Gait changes;
  • Loss of motor activity.

Pain is a natural manifestation of injury. Also pain may be a marked spasm of the muscles, especially with the injuries. If the spasm is absent, we can assume the fracture of the vertebrae because the muscles lose their attachment and are unable to decline.

Numbness is a consequence of impaired blood flow. Signs of trauma in this case differenciate clearly the site of injury. Cervical injuries cause numbness of the throat, lower jaw and skin of the face, breast – numbness of upper extremities and shoulders, lumbar and numbness of the lower extremities.

proyavleniya travm spinnogo mozga

The pain is worse when you attempt movement. This signals either a strong trauma or fracture. Fractures and compression of the disc is unable to maintain its normal position, as manifested by severe pain and the muscles lose their tone. Gait changes are also associated with pain. For minor injuries there will be lameness associated with damage to the nerve and vertebrae.

Occur pronounced changes in the spinal lordosis and kyphosis – exaggeration of the chest and abdomen forward, waist back. In the case of fracture of the tooth axis vertebra head cannot maintain its position, however, that in all cases leads to immediate death.


Treatment of injuries of the spine requires precise definition of the injury. In the best case, if there is a spinal injury treatment is a conservative. To restore the vertebrae used fixation of the patient in a certain position.

For injuries used analgesic and antispasmodic substances – to relieve pain and muscle spasm. This allows you to remove the pain. When the pinched nerve put the embargo – they also relieve pain syndrome.

When the pinched nerve pain syndrome dangerous formation of foci in the brain. In the future, the pain leads to manifestations of epilepsy and loss of function of the human brain, deafness, blindness.

In the case of dislocation of the vertebra surgery – the damaged vertebra is inserted in place, restore damaged tissue. In fractures of the arches and buildings of the vertebrae, they are fastened to titanium posts. In some cases, change the vertebral discs on implants from porous silicon or polymers. You must correctly fasten together pieces and remove the fragments.

operaciya pri travmah spinnogo mozga

It is necessary to protect your back. Pay attention to the road, do not try dangerous stunts, do not exceed the speed limit. Injuryspine carry a lot of health problems, in most cases, the person is confined to a wheelchair for the rest of his life, and modern medicine for all its development may have only a supportive effect.