Home / Injuries of the spine: compression fractures, bruises, sprains / Trauma of the cervical spine: consequences, symptoms, treatment, first aid

Trauma of the cervical spine: consequences, symptoms, treatment, first aid

Whiplash is very common in medicine, as this Department is considered to be very mobile and can perform many different movements. Why do injuries happen? The fact that the corset of muscle that wraps around our neck is, oddly enough, is very weak, and in addition to the vertebrae of the neck almost fragile. Trauma of the cervical spine is called the damage to the spinal column. It is, as a rule, is closed (when the skin is not broken) and open (wounds).

Travma shejnogo otdela pozvonochnika, kak lechit?

Cervical injury is the lion's share of the total number of injuries (about 20%) of the spine. However, if you compare this type of damage with injuries of the thoracic vertebrae, they are about 50% less, whereas injuries to the lumbar – and at less 75%. The mortality rate when such damage occurs in 35-45% of cases, and therefore to treat them the treatment should be extremely careful.

The causes of whiplash

To obtain a closed injury of the spine is quite simple. Neck injury can be acquired by a precise blow to the neck or with a sharp bend of the head. Sharp unusual bending of the head is called "whiplash" trauma", which is typical for car accidents and divers hitting when jumping into the water on the bottom. This injury is very serious and can even lead to death.

Also closed injuries may arise from birth, from pressure, sudden rotational and extensor movements. Open of damage to the cervical spine occur, usually as a result of gunshot or stab wounds and are often fatal. But it all depends on the permeability of the wound and its depth.

The blow rendered under the influence of body mass may also lead to damage not only the neck but also the back. The most serious injuries are those that occur at sharp landing human feet on the ground or shot into the ground with his head. When walking the body weight is evenly distributed on legs, and upper spine is not under heavy load, at the same time as the sudden impact of the foot on the ground the body weight is unevenly distributed, and also increases in the fall. Hence, the strongest pressure on the vertebrae, which can cause fracture of the spine.

Also, when sharp movements of the head possible dislocations of the vertebrae, which are often linked torn ligaments. In addition to the pulling pain of the dislocations characterized by the fact that the victim's head is in an unusual position. Injuries to the ligaments and intervertebral discs, can also be attributed to injury of one of the divisions of our skeleton, but they usually occur in discreet form, in which people are not in a hurry to go to a specialist. But even a small sprain may lead to complications.

Such damage is typical with a sharp movement of the head, and identified by a reddening of the surrounding tissue and unbearable pain. While damage to the disks can sasemas nerves or blood vessels may be strangled. In this case, every movement will be given with difficulty and pain, or the function of the spinal cord will be completely broken. Babies get neck injury most often in the case when the mother has a narrow pelvic bones, or the fetus is in the wrong presentation.

In most cases, this injury is not heavy and it is not accompanied by visible symptoms. In exceptional cases, birth trauma can lead to pathology of the brain and paralysis of the hands. It is safe to say that most people received at birth the Natal trauma of cervical Department of a backbone, just not all of it shows itself in action.

Injuries that were not immediately noticed, while growing up may manifest degenerative disc disease, VSD, hypertension, or often a headache.

travmirovanie shejnogo otdela pozvonochnika

Symptoms of damage

As with any breakthrough in terms of damage, there is pain, swelling and movements hampered. In addition, there are symptoms such as:

  • The pain, which gives to certain parts ofbody
  • Dizziness
  • Lost sensitivity
  • Breathing becomes difficult
  • In exceptional cases, it paralyzes the limbs.

Even if the symptoms disappeared for a while, in such cases, possible complications. Namely, it may become the cause of hemorrhage in the brain or the appearance of heart disease.

Treatment of injuries

Without examination physician assign the correct treatment is impossible. For establishing the type of injuries doctors prescribe x-rays in several projections. In some cases, you also need to have computer tomography, ultrasonic research of vessels and many other treatments. Sometimes to correct the injury required surgery, and complete restriction of motion of the spine, which is only possible in the hospital.

Therefore it is very important any damage to consult a doctor for an accurate diagnosis. With this purpose, there are different methods such as drug therapy or blockade of novocaine introduced into the site of injury. Will help in this problem, a locking corset, massage, exercise therapy, physiotherapy and a number of events.

Any proper treatment of the injury should begin with the procedure of traction. Her periods last from 3 to 4 weeks. Therapeutic physical culture appointed almost immediately after the patient's accident, and is held with the purpose to avoid various complications. The initial period of the physical exercise program includes the most primitive exercises for the damaged division of the limbs, and breathing exercises. Feet movement is performed in a lightweight form, because the direct lifting of suspension of a limb can cause pain syndromes due to tightening the muscles of the back.

About 2 weeks after receiving the damage of traction is replaced by a plaster corset with a specialized collar. His patients are from 7 to 9 weeks. Every week classes of medical physical culture, the time interval of the exercise increases, the patient begins to move more. First, in the limit of a room (chamber), after which the adjacent hallways and areas outside. After all the same 7-9 weeks fixing the bandage is removed, and the main efforts of medical physical culture are directed at strengthening the muscles of the neck.

Recovery after spinal cord injury is engaged in a long time, and it is important that the patient wanted as soon as possible to recover and get to his feet. Widely with the goal of rehabilitation uses exercises that affect coordination, and improving the posture of the patient.

Conservative methods

In that case, if a person has not observed severe brain damage, torn ligaments and comminuted fracture, it is necessary to use the methods of conservative treatment of injuries. In this case treatment is directed at eliminating pain, eliminating inflammation, and fixation of the spine is not only comfortable, but correct position. In the case of mild injury will simply limit the movement of the neck for a few days. In case of respiratory failure to the patient connect a special ventilator. Conservative treatment involves the use of vitamins such as b group, and nicotinic acid.


Bus Tsato and the collar of the Trench are used in cases where the patient is when receiving damage requires complete rest. After a fracture, damage to the disc or operation, you must run the extractor of the spine. It is performed in the seated or semi-sitting one of the known methods, such as loop Gleason, HALO, or a special corset. In case, if necessary, superimposed plaster bandage at a time from one to three months.

Surgery patients necessary in cases where the spine was deformed, or there is a compression of the nerve roots of the spinal cord. Because of this, you may need surgical treatment. Sometimes it can be done with the usual drawing, but the most commonly used surgical intervention in which you:

  • To remove the bone fragments;
  • With the help of a specialized transplant to repair the damaged vertebrae;
  • If necessary, make a complicated neurosurgical operation for the reconnection of nerve endings.

The trauma

If the neck injury is not time to seek qualified medical help, the victim can expect the most adverse effects, among which are:

  • Complete disruption of the heart, until it stops;
  • Violation of breathing process;
  • Paralysis of all limbs of the body;
  • Disorder in the internal organs;
  • Hypertonicity,limiting the movement.

vozmozhnye ishody pri travmah shejnogo otdela

As you have already understood, the consequences of damage to the cervical spine can be different and their recovery can take a very long time. Therefore, when the above symptoms, without delay, immediately consult a doctor.