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Treatment of compression fractures of the lumbar spine

Compression – compression, in other words, when compressed by the spine, can sometimes be broken. The body of the vertebrae are deformed, compressed, flattened, cracks. The basis is modified in the anterior region, acquiring a wedge-shaped structure. With a significant deformation of the rear part of the vertebra penetrates into the spinal canal, damaging and squeezing the spinal cord.

Kompressionnyj perelom pozvonochnika poyasnichnogo otdela lechenie

The human spine is compared to an "axis" consisting of many vertebrae, having the strength to cope with heavy loads and intervertebral discs, the movable elements are responsible for the depreciation of any load. The strength of bone tissues are not unlimited, and during sickness or beats bones become brittle, why sometimes there is a compression fracture of the lumbar spine.


The occurrence of compression fractures of the lumbar spine contribute to the action exerted great force on the detail of the vulnerable area. There are two cases in which all ends compression fracture of the lumbar vertebra:

  • A traumatic impact;
  • Disease.


Severe axle loads that appear when a person lands from a height onto the straightened leg or buttock, a bruise on the water surface when diving, from the fall of heavy things. A vertebral fracture is likely during sporting events.


  • Destructive degenerative processes caused by degenerative disc disease, disrupt the structure of tissue and cartilage discs located between the vertebrae. Disk is not getting power, moisture, reduced in size, which causes decrease in damping properties of the spinal unit;
  • Osteoporosis, deficiency of calcium, vitamin substances, minerals, hormonal failure, deteriorating condition of the bones, they lose density. Broken bones from a minor injury, falling that is safe for humans, having a healthy body. Disease in the elderly is dangerous, that to heal and repair tissue long and difficult and not always successful. For the person with Alzheimer's is reduced in height, becoming the hump. With all this compression fracture spine lumbar treatable;
  • Oncology, tuberculosis, bone disease, gradually changing the internal structure, often cause compression fractures of the vertebra. Metastases cancerous tumours cause problems.

Symptoms and effects

The main symptoms depending on the strain and location of the vertebra, but no less important reason. Symptoms are conventionally divided into three groups:

  • The traumatic consequences of vertebral compression fracture exhibit strong sharp pain in the lower back, extending to the feet and sometimes the hands of the patient;
  • When damaged nerve tissue located in the region of the vertebrae, a person experiences weakness, deterioration of sensitivity, numbness and other symptoms associated with neuroscience. Damaged structures of the nerve roots are not always immediately make themselves felt. The spinal canal is narrowed gradually under pressure from the damaged vertebrae;
  • Progressive osteoporosis there is moderate, but gradually increasing pain. The destruction of the vertebra is a long painful process requiring immediate action.

These effects are not the worst in the situation when such fracture. Worst of all, when there is compression of the spinal cord. Then, in addition to much pain the lumbar region occur pathological processes in the hip bodies. Paralysis of the lower extremities, impaired motor system, and the sensitivity of the area located below the place of compression, lost control of the work of the rectum and bladder. With the full gap, the situation is irreversible.


The symptoms described above require urgent access to medical care. The attending physician, to determine the localization, extent of fracture, carries out procedures to produce high-quality diagnosis and prescribe a coursetreatment.

Start with an x-ray of the lumbar region, producing its two projections. It becomes clear where and what tissue damage the bones of the vertebrae have been injured. The second stage – procedure magnetic resonance imaging, allowing the smallest details to investigate the structure of the spine. The main difference from the MRI radiographic procedures lies in the fact that the first shows not only the damaged nerves in the spine Department, but their level of deformation. The probability of use of myelography, when we are talking about the fractured vertebra. To determine the impact of spinal fracture is a medical worker checks the peripheral nerves and spinal cord.

  • First, the degree of fracture – height of the vertebra decreases by less than half. This type is the least dangerous, well treated, favorable forecasts of physicians;
  • Second degree – the height of the vertebral body is reduced by half. Felt pain impulses in the area of injury;
  • Third-degree fracture is reduced more than half. Manifest neurological disorders.

Densitometry is a procedure designed for people over 50 years. Thanks to the procedure, revealed osteoporosis. Bone skeleton weakens due to lower levels of calcium in tissues, poor nutrition, inactive lifestyle.

Fracture in children

Careful palpation allows you to identify the child has a minor fracture, the symptoms are not always pronounced. Soreness of the deformed region with slight pressure on the head or forearm tells about the location of the damaged vertebra.

Serious injuries due to the presence of:

  • The limited mobility of the spine;
  • The difficulty breathing;
  • Tensions muscle. Accompanied by increasing pain in the abdominal area.


Beginning of how to treat a compression fracture is the transportation of the victim. Competent delivery in a medical institution – the basis of a favorable clinical picture. The situation will worsen if the patient often shift, wrong move, and the patient's posture will be different from the position on the back. In violation of the safety region of the spinal cord, the bone fragments can be the development of other spinal injuries, which it was not.

The transportation is performed in the supine position on her back, arms extended on the sides along the body, is prohibited poses sitting, on side, on stomach. The important stiffness of the stretcher to the back of the patient does not bend, and lay on a flat surface. In the absence of such, use wooden shields.

Shifting, responsible activity, doing at least three people. People should go on one side, then slowly lift the body on the side opposite of the people standing assisting. Under the body, feet, hands give birth to a hard stretcher. It is important to visually assess the condition of the injury, and then carefully lay the patient. Transportation the stairs or other inclined surface is feet first.

Treatment in a medical institution is carried out following bed rest. Traumatic fractures without displacement of the vertebrae and spinal deformities treated within four months, of which 21 days definitely worn a corset. The elderly, weak people, has to spend more time, as the recovery period is extended. Doctors prescribe analgesics to reduce the pain level, but her termination does not mean recovery should know about every patient that ahead of time not to return to a normal life, thus exacerbating the fragile state of the body. It is impossible to do sharp movements, tilt, rotate, test any load on the fragile spine.

Getting rid of the load on the spine is the initial step. Young patients are prescribed bed rest, and after some time adjusting and doing the stretching, applying corsets, reclinators. Corsets are prescribed for complex fracture, or when three or more damaged vertebrae. After the results of the medical checks, the doctor prescribes individual exercises and therapeutic gymnastics, massage of the muscles of the back, physical therapy.

The body of the child active, fast-growing, so the rehabilitation period and restoration of organ function are faster but to return the full height of the vertebra, require more than two years.


Strong squeezing of the endings of nerve fibers or spinal cord, causes pain, disrupts the performance of the internal organs, is subject to recovery with the help of surgical tools. The main task – getting rid of compression.

operativnoe lechenie kompressionnyh perelomov pozvonochnika

Basic techniques:

  • Kyphoplasty;
  • Vertebroplasty.

Kyphoplasty is an interesting technique which allows to speed up the healing process, improve restore vertebral height. Insert the object into the vertebral body, resembling a balloon, inflate, which leads to the lifting of the part of the spine to the desired height. Then, to fix an acceptable position, strengthen the vertebra to inject the bone cement composition.

Vertebroplastica – introduction of a special cement for bones, reducing pain, enhancing the strength of the vertebra. Recovery is beneficial due to the reduction of the time period.


It is important to have rehabilitation treatments and activities that contribute to the proper recovery of the body, with all of the features of the injury. Therapeutic exercise can be performed at home, but doctors recommend to conduct classes under the supervision of medical personnel, the efficiency and the recovery period is noticeably improved.

The first studies aimed at the prevention of deterioration of muscle function, improving activities of cardiac muscle, stomach, intestines, respiratory system. After a couple of months, the program is administered classes, strengthening the corset muscles, prepare for increased active mode. Comes at the expense of increased time period allotted for the exercises, quantity of approaches.

Good indicators of recovery are assigned to the loads produced in the vertical position, containing exercises with resistance weights. At the final stage, the patient performs all standing, each stage is determined on the basis of individual capabilities and level of injury.