Home / Dorsopathy: diseases of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar spine / Spinal cord lesion at different levels: symptoms, treatment

Spinal cord lesion at different levels: symptoms, treatment

Spinal cord – part of the Central nervous system. It is located in the spinal canal formed by the holes of the vertebrae. The spinal cord starts from the foramen Magnum at the level of articulation of the first cervical vertebra with the occipital bone. Ends at the border of the first and second lumbar vertebrae. There are two thickening cervical, responsible for the management of the upper limbs, the lumbar-sacral controlling the lower limbs.

porazhenie spinnogo mozga

Distinguish 8 cervical or neck, 12 thoracic or thoracic, 5 lumbar or lumbar, 5 sacral or sacral and 1-3 coccygeal or coccygeal segment. In the spinal cord there is a white (wired paths for impulses from and to the neurons) and gray (neurons) matter. Gray matter contains several groups of neurons called horns because of their external similarity, is responsible for specific functions: the front horns contain motor neurons that control muscle movement, the posterior horn is responsible for all kinds of sensitivity coming from the body and lateral (only in thoracic), to give the team all the internal organs.

Syndromes of spinal cord lesions

Depending on the type of lesion, spinal cord and the affected area the symptoms may be different, have a very different clinical picture. To distinguish between the symptoms depending on the level of the lesion of the spinal cord and its localization structures (white and gray matter) that is violated. If the damage does not cross the entire diameter of the spinal cord, the sensitivity will disappear on the opposite, and motor function on the affected side.

The damaged groups of neurons

The damage of motoneurons of the anterior horns leads to loss of motor function in the muscles controlled by these segments. Irregularities in the posterior groups of neurons leads to segmental loss of sensation in skin areas corresponding to the data segments. Damage to the lateral horns cause disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, internal organs.

If the pathological process hurt the white matter, interrupted the paths which pass the pulses between the upstream and downstream structures of the CNS. Following this, sustainable developing the violation of the innervation of the lower parts of the human body.

Symptoms of spinal cord lesions at different levels

Contrary to popular belief, the spinal cord lesions is not always lethal. Deaths occur only in the case of a full or half gap of the diameter of the first five cervical segments. This is due to location in them the respiratory and cardiovascular centers. All complete ruptures are characterized by a total loss of sensitivity, motor activity below the injury site. Injury of the coccygeal and last sacral segments will cause a loss of control of pelvic organs: involuntary urination, defecation.

Injury

Injuries account for about 80-90% of all diseases of the spinal cord. They occur in a domestic environment, sports, in an accident, in the workplace. As a consequence of exposure to traumatic factor is compression, displacement, or various fractures of the vertebrae. When lifting excessive weight, the formation of a herniated disc – protrusion of cartilage inside the spinal canal with subsequent compression of the structures of the CNS and nerve roots.

Depending on the severity of the injury formed the damage of SM in varying degrees. With little traumatic effects observed concussion of the nervous tissue, which leads to minor motor, sensory disorders and takes place within 2-4 weeks. More serious injuries cause complete or partial rupture of the cross-section SM with the appropriate symptom complex.

The displacement of the vertebrae is characterized by the development of long-seboreguliruyuschee disorders of all kinds of sensitivity and movement. Symptoms can worsen at a certain position of the body, prolonged sedentary work or work requiring the exertion of back muscles.

Hernia and infection

It often happens that the resulting back hernia compresses the spinal nerve roots. This leads to severe zoster pain, without compromising movement. The pain intensified when bending, lifts weights resting on the uncomfortable surface. With the development of inflammation of the membranes CM are observed common to several, sometimes all, segments symptoms. The clinic can be similar to sciatica, but the symptoms spread more than 2-3 segments. There is a rise in body temperature to 39-40 degrees, often joined by symptoms of meningitis of the brain, the patient's manifestations of intoxication, and possible delirium and loss of consciousness.

The viral disease, polio affects exclusively the front horn that contains motor neurons. This leads to the inability to control skeletal muscles. Although 4-6 months is possible, some recovery of innervation at the expense of surviving neurons, patients for life lose the ability to complete movements.

infekciya kak prichina porazheniya spinnogo mozga

Spinal strokes

A rare disease associated with blood circulation. Each segment of a base has its own segmental artery. When the blockage occurs the death of neurons in the relevant area. Clinic spinal movements may be similar to the break half of the diameter of CM but they are preceded by injury. Development of pathology in most cases occurs in older people with atherosclerotic vascular disease, hypertension, in the past possible the transferred heart attacks and strokes.

Tumors and metastases

Primary tumors of the membranes of the CM or directly to the substance are rare. Metastases develop on the background of already existing cancer processes in the lung or pelvis. Symptoms in the initial stages is similar to a spinal stroke, but they lack the suddenness of the onset of symptoms. The disease develops some time, a gradual deterioration of health of the patient, in 90% of cases, joins pain, frequent pathological fractures of the vertebrae.

Hereditary and congenital diseases

Violation of embryonic development of the CM and the spine is detected in early childhood due to defects in the development, disturbance of motor function.

Nezaradene vertebral arcs or nonunion with the bodies of the vertebrae causes the formation meningoencephalitic hernia is formed when a protrusion of the meninges, filled with CSF. Quite often the appearance of an additional lumbar vertebrae by reducing the number of sacral or, on the contrary, the increment of the lumbar to the sacrum. Such anomalies are quite common and, unlike all other, might not be, viewsas accidentally during regular health examinations.

Syringomyelia – incomplete fusion of the halves of the spinal cord. The anomaly develops in the early stages of embryonic development, while laying the CNS. Shows the gross pathology of congenital disorders of motor and sensory functions. Often combined with other defects of development and structure of musculoskeletal system and internal organs.