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Osteomyelitis of the spine: symptoms, treatment, effects, photo

Osteomyelitis of the spine – a disease in which the inside of the vertebrae becomes inflamed and formed pus accumulations. The reason is that bacteria, pathogens, infecting the bone tissue. Symptoms include severe pain in the area of occurrence of osteomyelitis, a sharp increase in body temperature. Surgery can be avoided as early as possible to begin drug treatment of osteomyelitis.

Osteomielit pozvonochnika

Reasons

Osteomyelitis of the spine can affect the spine for several reasons. One of the main elderly. And many other things that make the human body weaker, the traumatic impact that various diseases and pathological processes. All this increases the likelihood that osteomyelitis will strike the spine of the patient.

The impetus for the disease is usually a penetration of the infection into the soft tissue through the blood and mechanical damage to the vertebrae and cartilage between them. The older a person is, the higher the probability that it will overtake osteomyelitis. Generally patients over fifty years of age. In more than half situations, the process initially affects only the lower back and then spreads. The pathogen enters from bladder outflow through the veins.

Cardiac problems may become another risk factor. Sometimes the infection penetrates through the normal ulcers, sore teeth or sore ears. A large number of bacterial infections may lead to the development of disease. After a traumatic impact or surgical intervention, through the prosthesis, the causative agent can get into the body of the vertebrae. Sometimes this happens because of the use of non-sterile devices – syringes and catheters. Therefore, another reason becomes an addiction.

The development and symptoms of osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis – a kind of spondylitis. The so-called group of diseases in which becomes softer and festering human bone. Start the disease process Staphylococcus Streptococcus, E. coli, actinomycetes. To explain how the infection occurs, the recall device circulation spine.

Osteomielit pozvonochnika simptomy

The body of each vertebra is isolated, separated from the other by intervertebral cartilage and end plates. On the ridge line in the neck there are two arteries that branch out into multiple threads. In the chest area of the blood circulating through calopogonium soft tissues through the arteries between the ribs. Lumbosacral receives nutrients through the arteries of the lower back and sacrum. Arterial branches are recorded in the network in bone tissue. Vertebrae everywhere surrounded by small venous vessels, which are collected in larger veins.

Suggest to read: perineural cyst at the level of s2 vertebra.

The causative agents of osteomyelitis can enter the bone via both venous and arterial blood. When they get there, the human immune system activates inflammation. But during this fight the enemy dies and the bone tissue.

Dead organisms pose purulent accumulation within the vertebrae. Sooner or later comes to the fact that the pus destroys the shell of the vertebra, moving the closing plates. Thus the abscess comes to nearby vertebrae. In relation to the infecting power of the organisms-pathogens are the following types of what is osteomyelitis of the spine:

  • Acute (the half of the whole statistics);
  • Chronic (quarter);
  • The primary chronicle (about ten percent.

A victim of this disease are usually older men. Tension and stress, a large number of various other diseases leads to the fact that the immune system is weakened. As a result, the body harder to deal with hostile bacteria, and to control inflammation.

simptomy osteomielita

Most common acute type. The symptoms primarily include severe pain in the infected region. There is heat, fever, sweating, weakness. Appears swelling of soft tissues of the ridge, pushing too hard vessels (which can lead to the formation of blood clots), sore spinal muscles. To a lesser extent, and Express themselves in the symptoms of chronic form. Pain syndrome is a dull character, the temperature rises slightly and is kept at this level for long. The pain is hard is localized,symptoms resemble pneumonia or kidney. Some patients even believe that their torments ordinary low back pain.

Strong pain syndrome is usually caused by pressure within the vertebral bodies. If the integrity of the abscess is broken not in the direction of the end plate, and the outside of the spine, abscesses appear.

Another problem is that the body builds up the bone tissue is damaged. When overgrown cracked, looking in the direction of the spinal cord, the outcome of this may be that the solid tissues of narashivanie will be too much, and they will begin to put pressure on the spinal cord. That will cause a large number of serious neurological symptoms.

Kostnyj mozg pri osteomielite

When the disease becomes chronicle, ulcers inside the bone becomes greater, and each of them grows by itself. When is pus build new bone tissue, it may be poorly compatible with the surrounding bony walls. As a result, these sites can again easily be infected.

The bone marrow is also exposed to infection. The pus does not normally develop new blood cells. First and foremost, it suffers from the immune system.

Diagnostic methods

The acute phase starts a few days after the pathogen has penetrated the vertebrae. Inflammation and abscess trigger pain and high temperature. Diagnosing osteomyelitis of the spine, it is necessary first to understand what microbes caused it. This is used for bacteriological analysis, a variety of shots inside the vertebrae. Based on data compiled by the approximate forecast for the development of inflammation and a plan of treatment.

Diagnostic methods for detection of different types of illness do not differ:

  • X-ray examination often used to find the purulent cavity in the vertebral bone. Best x-ray helps if osteomyelitis chronic;
  • Imaging on the computer gives similar data, but better quality. More accurately determined by localization of pus and new bone tissue;
  • MRI allows you to recreate detailed images of ulcers and cavities, to obtain data on the affected are the cells of bone;
  • Ultrasound allows you to find abscesses in the soft tissues of the spine.

MRT pozvonochnika

To understand the condition of the patient's immune system osteomyelitis, use blood the number of leukocytes and speed subsidence erythrocytes. Radical diagnostic method is the analysis themselves purulent accumulations.

Treatment of osteomyelitis

Infectious-bacterial strain the vertebrae are treated comprehensively. If there is no evidence, doctors tend to try to limit the conservative treatment of inflammation. The first thing to deal with by the causative agent of osteomyelitis and strengthen the immune system. Including apply restorative medication. The period of conservative treatment ranges from one month to two, if the pathology was not diagnosed in the advanced stage. To fight the bacteria mainly used antibiotics.

Surgeon osteomyelitis will be required if the shell of the vertebrae or intervertebral discs is too much ruined. Can't do the surgery if the infection got into the blood and internal organs. Conservative therapeutic methods also have to do, if the inflammation has caused other complications.

In order to effectively recreate the original structure of vertebral osteomyelitis after suffering used transplantation of bone from the ribs of the patient.

Treatment often is pretty hard: not always implant survives well, often the healing process is very painful. Can disrupt blood circulation in the vertebra, appear edema okolomatocnah tissue to become worse the sensitivity and mobility of the operated area. Sometimes it happens that the transplanted tissue is suddenly destroyed, which causes a change of position vertebra.

lechenie osteomielita

In many cases, doctors instead of transplanting the bone of the patient, I prefer to strengthen the bone fixing titanium components.

And using modern materials you can fill them with antibiotics and other drugs that slow affect a given area. Such material is, for example, porous titanium alloy. How long before the patient began treatment of osteomyelitis, and so higher the likelihood that it will be successful. The lethal outcome is possible only if the infection affects the internal organs, especially lungs and heart.